Kiel Nano, Surface and Interface Science (KiNSIS)

Talks SFB 1261

Physiology of Peripheral Nerve Conduction from a Signal Analysis Point of View (Prof. Dr. med. Wilhelm Schulte-Mattler)

14.09.2017 ab 17:00

Technische Fakultät, Geb. D, "Aquarium", Kaiserstr. 2, 24143 Kiel

Talk of the CRC 1261 "Magnetoelectric Sensors: From Composite Materials to Biomagnetic Diagnostics". Everybody interested is welcome.


Abstract

To transmit information, peripheral nerve fibers locally change their electrical membrane properties. The changed regions move along the fibers causing traveling electrical fields, causing changes in voltage over time that depend both on where the voltage is recorded and on the nerve’s properties. Things are complicated by the nerves being composed of many thousands of fibers.

A simple model that explains these voltage changes, namely the signals that are recorded from actively transmitting nerves, will be presented. These signals provide information about the nerve’s function. Both, the influence of the recording conditions and the influence of various nerve disorders on the recorded waveforms will be presented. The usefulness of simple measures, such as amplitude and duration, is established. More advanced signal analysis indeed provides more information about peripheral nerve disorders.

Short biography

Wilhelm Schulte-Mattler studied Mathematics and Physics, followed by Medicine. He graduated at the University of Würzburg in 1988. His thesis was on Quantification of recruitment in needle-EMG. He specialized in Neurology in 1993. After heading Clinical Neurophysiology in the Dept. of Neurology, University of Halle-Wittenberg; since the year 2000, he is head of Clinical Neurophysiology in the Dept. of Neurology, University of Regensburg. A significant part of his work is on waveform analysis in clinical neurophysiology, particularly in electromyography and in electroneurography.

 

 

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Spin electronics for biomagnetic recordings (Dr. Myriam Pannetier-Lecoeur)

12.10.2017 ab 17:00

Technische Fakultät, Gebäude D, Kaisterstraße 2, Aquarium

Talk of the CRC 1261 "Magnetoelectric Sensors: From Composite Materials to Biomagnetic Diagnostics". Everybody interested is welcome.

Abstract

Currents circulating in excitable cells like neurons or nerve fibers may be measured by the radiated magnetic field. At the organ level, these magnetic fields can be detected by non-invasive experiments using highly sensitive magnetometers such as SQUIDS, atomic magnetometers or mixed sensors, the latter using spin electronics. To understand the genesis of the signals obtained in brain areas, it is relevant to investigate the fields generated at the level of one or few cells. This requires small and sensitive field sensors, operating at physiological temperatures, which has long been out of reach from existing technologies. Spin electronics, based on thin film magnetic properties, explores the variation of conduction electron transport as a function of the state of their spin. It is thus possible to modify the resistance of an element as a function of the magnetic field of its environment. This property has been widely exploited in hard disk drive heads, but also opens up the possibility of manufacturing very sensitive and miniaturizable magnetic sensors. Spin electronics-based magnetic sensors are micron-size devices reaching sub-nanotesla field range on a wide range of temperature, including physiological temperature. We have designed and fabricated magnetic sensors called magnetrodes, as a magnetic equivalent of electrodes, to probe locally the information transmission of excitable cells. These probes contain one or several GMR elements in embodiment compatible to recordings in contact with tissues or within tissues. Two types of sensors have been evaluated on living tissues; a planar probe to investigate the Action Potential propagation in in vitro preparation of muscle cells, which have demonstrated the first local biomagnetic recordings with GMR sensors, and a sharp probe for in vivo recordings of cortical activity. In this talk I will present how sensors based on spin electronics can address biomagnetic signal recordings at the organ level and at local scale. In particular I will discuss the first in vivo experiments performed, which have paved a new way to a local description of electrical activity, without direct contact to the cell and which allow accessing not only the amplitude of the activity but also its direction of propagation, at any depth within the tissues.

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Biomagnetic Sensing and Processing – Progress Using a Modular Approach, Dr. Tilmann Sander-Thömmes (PTB, Berlin)

23.04.2018 ab 17:15

Technische Fakultät, Gebäude D, Kaisterstraße 2, Aquarium

Open Talk of the CRC 1261 "Magnetoelectric Sensors: From Composite Materials to Biomagnetic Diagnostics"

In the field of biomagnetism the application of mathematical algorithms has been as important as the hardware itself. Traditionally, the hardware (the sensor Array) was based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) and operated for decades without large modifications. In contrast to that the range of relevant mathematical algorithms increased at a steady pace. This was driven by factors such as an ever increasing PC based computing power, new physiological insights motivating the application of existing algorithms, and the development of new algorithms to test biophysical models among others.

After around three decades of SQUID based Hardware, now new magnetic field sensors with the potential to replace or complement SQUIDs are available or under development. The opportunity for new sensors is the consequence of clinical challenges unsolved by state-of-the art SQUID based systems and due to new technology allowing alternative quantum physics based sensors in a small sized housing. These new sensors often have extra capabilities compared with SQUIDs and naturally some disadvantages. I will illustrate the modular approach using the example of optically pumped magnetometers and the signal processing toolbox FieldTrip.

Short biography
Tilmann Sander-Thömmes studied Physics at University of Freiburg and ETH Zürich and graduated there in 1992. He continued to obtain a PhD in solid-state physics at Imperial College in London. Following two post-docs in Berlin he has been working at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt since 2000 in the laboratory for Biosignals. Since 1998 he is involved with measuring and analysing magnetic brain signals. He is an expert in magnetoencephalography using both SQUIDs and more recently optically pumped magnetometers.

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Applying Quantum Sensors, Prof. Dr. Jörg Wrachtrup (Institute for Quantum Science and Technology, University of Stuttgart)

08.03.2018 ab 17:00

Technische Fakultät, Gebäude D, Kaisterstraße 2, Aquarium

Open Talk of the CRC 1261 "Magnetoelectric Sensors: From Composite Materials to Biomagnetic Diagnostics"

The accuracy of measurements is limited by quantum mechanics. Ingenious demonstrations, like measuring gravitational fields or time have explored accuracy limits and reached fundamental obstructions. Yet, precision measurements so far are restricted to dedicated environmental conditions essentially excluding “every day” applications. In the talk I will discuss spin quantum sensors comprising a single or multiple electron spins. With such a system we measure a variety of quantities including electric and magnetic fields, temperature, and force under ambient conditions. We use nuclear spins to enhance the measurement accuracy of the electron spin e.g. via quantum error correction or as ancillary quantum bits as memory or for quantum Fourier transformation [1-3]. I will present a variety of applications ranging from quantum simulations to imaging of cellular structures. I will emphasize the engineering challenges of these sensors and discuss their use to e.g. measure biomagnetic fields.

[1] N. Aslam et al. Science 0.1126/science.aam8697 (2017)
[2] L. Schlipf et al. Science Advances 3:e1701116 (2017) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701116
[3] F. F. de Oliveira, et al. Nat. Commun. 8, 15409 doi: 10.1038/ncomms15409 (2017)

 

 

 

 

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Pressemitteilungen

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« Februar 2018 »
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  • 16:15: tba. (Prof. Dr. Jan Benedikt, Universität Kiel)
  • 17:00: Modellsysteme der Tyrosinase: Von mono - zu binuklearen Kupfer(I) - Komplexen (Benjamin Herzigkeit)
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31 1 2
  • 14:15: tba, Arindam Khan, TU München
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  • 17:00: Entwicklungsstrategien beim Tablettieren (Gerhard Waßmann, Lehmann & Voss & Co.KG)
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